Arduino is basically used C,Cpp Syntax where if,else,loop(while,for,do_while),switch,break,continue.

  1. Structure & Flow
  2. Operators
  3. Built-in Functions
  4. Variables, Arrays, and Data
  5. Libraries
Arduino-Uno-R3-Pinouts
Arduino-Uno-R3-Pinouts

Structure & Flow

Basic Program Structure

void setup()
{
// Runs once when sketch starts
}
void loop()
{
// Runs repeatedly
}

Control Structures

if (x < 5) { … } else { … }
while (x < 5) { … }
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { … }
break; // Exit a loop immediately
continue; // Go to next iteration
switch (var) {
case 1:

break;
case 2:

break;
default:

}
return x; // x must match return type
return; // For void return type

Function Definitions

void function_name() { … }
int double(int x) {return x*2;}


Operators

General Operators
  • = assignment
  • + add, – subtract
  • * multiply
  • / divide
  •  % modulo
  • == equal to
  •  != not equal to
  • < less than
  • > greater than
  • <= less than equal to
  • >= greater than or equal to
  • && and
  • || or
  • ! not
 Compound Operators
  • ++ increment
  • — decrement
  • += compound addition
  • -= compound subtraction
  • *= compound multiplication
  • /= compound division
  • &= compound bitwise and
  • |= compound bitwise or
 Bitwise Operators
  • & bitwise and
  • | bitwise or
  • ^ bitwise xor
  • ~ bitwise not
  • << shift left
  • >> shift right
  Pointer Access
  • & reference: get a pointer
  • * dereference: follow a pointer

Built-in Functions

Mostly used Function to call hardwares pin to used in project.

Pin Input/Output

Digital I/Opins 0-13 A0-A5
pinMode(pin,
[INPUT, OUTPUT, INPUT_PULLUP])
int digitalRead(pin)
digitalWrite(pin, [HIGH, LOW])
 Analog Inpins A0-A5
int analogRead(pin)
analogReference(
[DEFAULT, INTERNAL, EXTERNAL])
 PWM Outpins 3 5 6 9 10 11
analogWrite(pin, value)
Advanced I/Otone(pin, freq_Hz)
tone(pin, freq_Hz, duration_ms)
noTone(pin)
shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin,
[MSBFIRST, LSBFIRST], value)
unsigned long pulseIn(pin,
[HIGH, LOW])
Timeunsigned long millis()
// Overflows at 50 days
unsigned long micros()
// Overflows at 70 minutes
delay(msec)
delayMicroseconds(usec)
Mathmin(x, y) max(x, y) abs(x)
sin(rad) cos(rad) tan(rad)
sqrt(x) pow(base, exponent)
constrain(x, minval, maxval)
map(val, fromL, fromH, toL, toH)
Random NumbersrandomSeed(seed) // long or int
long random(max) // 0 to max-1
long random(min, max)
Bits and ByteslowByte(x) highByte(x)
bitRead(x, bitn)
bitWrite(x, bitn, bit)
bitSet(x, bitn)
bitClear(x, bitn)
bit(bitn) // bitn: 0=LSB 7=MSB
Type Conversionschar(val)
byte(val)
int(val)
word(val)
long(val)
float(val)
External InterruptsattachInterrupt(interrupt, func,
[LOW, CHANGE, RISING, FALLING])
detachInterrupt(interrupt)
interrupts()
noInterrupts()

Variables, Arrays, and Data

variables used to store a data item that may take on more than one value during the runtime of a program.

An array is a container object that holds a fixed number of values of a single type. The length of anarray is established when the array is created

Data Typesboolean true | false
char -128 – 127, ‘a’ ‘$’ etc.
unsigned char 0 – 255
byte 0 – 255
int -32768 – 32767
unsigned int 0 – 65535
word 0 – 65535
long -2147483648 – 2147483647
unsigned long 0 – 4294967295
float -3.4028e+38 – 3.4028e+38
double currently same as float
void i.e., no return value
Stringschar str1[8] =
{‘A’,’r’,’d’,’u’,’i’,’n’,’o’,’\0′};
// Includes \0 null termination
char str2[8] =
{‘A’,’r’,’d’,’u’,’i’,’n’,’o’};
// Compiler adds null termination
char str3[] = “Arduino”;
char str4[8] = “Arduino”;
Numeric Constants123 decimal
0b01111011 binary
0173 octal – base 8
0x7B hexadecimal – base 16
123U force unsigned
123L force long
123UL force unsigned long
123.0 force floating point
1.23e6 1.23*10^6 = 1230000
Qualifiersstatic persists between calls
volatile in RAM (nice for ISR)
const read-only
PROGMEM in flash
Arraysint myPins[] = {2, 4, 8, 3, 6};
int myInts[6]; // Array of 6 ints
myInts[0] = 42; // Assigning first
// index of myInts
myInts[6] = 12; // ERROR! Indexes
// are 0 though 5

Libraries

Serial :-Serial – comm. with PC or via RX/TX
begin(long speed) // Up to 115200
end()
int available() // #bytes available
int read() // -1 if none available
int peek() // Read w/o removing
flush()
print(data) println(data)
write(byte) write(char * string)
write(byte * data, size)
SerialEvent() // Called if data rdySoftwareSerial.h – comm. on any pin
SoftwareSerial(rxPin, txPin)
begin(long speed) // Up to 115200
listen() // Only 1 can listen
isListening() // at a time.
read, peek, print, println, write
// Equivalent to Serial library
EEPROM :-EEPROM.h – access non-volatile memory
byte read(addr)
write(addr, byte)
EEPROM[index] // Access as array
Servo Motor :-Servo.h – control servo motors
attach(pin, [min_uS, max_uS])
write(angle) // 0 to 180
writeMicroseconds(uS)
// 1000-2000; 1500 is midpoint
int read() // 0 to 180
bool attached()
detach()
 Wire :- Wire.h – I²C communication
begin() // Join a master
begin(addr) // Join a slave @ addr
requestFrom(address, count)
beginTransmission(addr) // Step 1
send(byte) // Step 2
send(char * string)
send(byte * data, size)
endTransmission() // Step 3
int available() // #bytes available
byte receive() // Get next byte
onReceive(handler)
onRequest(handler)

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Arduino-First-Time-Run

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Basics of Arduino Programing

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