Routing is the act of moving information across an inter-network from a source to a destination. Along the way, at least one intermediate node typically is encountered. Routing is often contrasted with bridging, which might seem to accomplish precisely the same thing to the casual observer. The primary difference between the two is that bridging occurs at Layer 2 (the link layer) of the OSI reference model, whereas routing occurs at Layer 3 (the network layer). This distinction provides routing and bridging with different information to use in the process of moving information from source to destination, so the two functions accomplish their tasks in different ways.
The topic of routing has been covered in computer science literature for more than two decades, but routing achieved commercial popularity as late as the mid-1980s. The primary reason for this time lag is that networks in the 1970s were simple, homogeneous environments. Only relatively recently has large-scale inter-networking become popular.
Types of Routing Protocols
1. Routing Information Protocol version 1.
It is a oldest routing protocol used by router to cover small geographic location to find routes of various neighbors router attached with it.
To configure Rip version, write following commands: –
2. Routing Information Protocol version 2.
Both versions of RIP, RIPv1 and RIPv2, are Distance Vector Routing Protocols that use router hop counts as their metrics. They support a maximum hop count value of 15. Any router farther than 15 hops away is considered to be unreachable.
To configure RIP version 2, write following commands: –
Note:- It is important to mention version 2 after the addition of all the networks.
3. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an interior gateway protocol suited for many different topologies and media. In a well designed network, EIGRP scales well and provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal network traffic. This routing protocol only support cisco routers because it is propriety protocol of cisco.
To configure EIGRP protocol: –
=>router(config)#router EIGRP autonomous-number
Note: – Autonomous number stand for total number of connection can established within a network.
4. Open Shortest Path First.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and commonly used in large Enterprise networks. OSPF is a link-state routing protocol providing fast convergence and excellent scalability. Like all link-state protocols, OSPF is very efficient in its use of network bandwidth.
To configure OSPF protocol: –
=>router(config)#router ospf process-id
=>router(config)#network IP-address wildcard-mask area